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Boon, G.C. 1964: ‘Three small excavations at Caerleon’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 113, 16–40

Boon, G.C. 1972: Isca, the Roman Legionary Fortress at Caerleon, Mon., Cardiff

Boon, G.C. 1978b: ‘Excavations on the site of a Roman quay at Caerleon and its significance’, in Boon, G.C., Roman Sites, Cambrian Archaeological Association Monographs & Collections 1, Cardiff, 1–24

Boon, G.C. 1987: The Legionary Fortress of Caerleon–Isca, Cardiff

Boon, G.C. and Williams, C. 1967: Plan of Caerleon, Isca, Legio II Augusta: Discoveries to December 1966, with Restoration Commentary and Comparative Plans, Cardiff

Bosanquet, R.C. and King, F. 1963: ‘Excavations at Caerleon 1909’, The Monmouthshire Antiquary 1, 1–10

Brewer, R.J. 2001: ‘Caerleon and the Archaeologists: Changing Ideas on the Roman Fortress’, The Monmouthshire Antiquary 17, 9–34

Brewer, R.J. and Gardner, A. forthcoming: The Roman Fortress at Caerleon, Stroud

Casey, P. J. and Hoffmann, B. 1995: ‘Excavations at Alstone Cottage, Caerleon, in 1970’, Britannia 26, 63–106

Chapman, E. 2002: ‘Evidence of an armamentarium at Caerleon? The Prysg Field rampart buildings’, in Aldhouse-Green, M. and Webster, P. (eds), Artefacts and Archaeology, Aspects of the Celtic and Roman World, Cardiff, 33–43

Evans, E.M. 1991: ‘Excavations at “Sandygate”, Cold Bath Road, Caerleon, Gwent’, Britannia 22, 103–36

Evans, E.M. 2010: ‘Caerleon’, in Burnham, B.C. and Davies, J.L. (eds), Roman Frontiers and Wales and the Marches, Aberystwyth, 161–72

Evans, E.M. and Maynard, D.J. 1997: ‘Caerleon Lodge Hill cemetery, the Abbeyfield Extra Care Society site’, Britannia 28, 169–243

Evans, D.R. and Metcalf, V.M. 1992: The ‘Roman Gates’ Site in the Fortress of the Second Augustan Legion at Caerleon, Gwent: The Excavations of the Roman Buildings and Evidence for Early Medieval Activity, Oxbow Monograph 15, Oxford

Fox, A. 1940: ‘The legionary fortress at Caerleon, Monmouthshire: Excavations in Myrtle Cottage Orchard 1939’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 95, 101–52

Fox, S. 1995: ‘Caerleon, Gwent College of Higher Education: Rathmell extension’, Archaeology in Wales 35, 54

Gardner, A. and Guest, P. 2007: Caerleon Excavations at Golledge’s Field and Priory Field, 2007: Interim Report, [PDF]

Gardner, A. and Guest, P. 2009: ‘Fortress Isca’, Current Archaeology 226, 31–7

Gardner, A. and Guest, P. 2010: ‘Exploring Roman Caerleon. new excavations at the legionary fortress of Isca’, Archaeology International 12, 47–51

Grimes, W.F. 1935: ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon in Monmouthshire: Report on the excavations carried out in the Town Hall Field in 1930’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 90, 112–22

Guest, P. and Gardner, A. 2008: Caerleon Excavations in Priory Field, 2008: Interim Report, [PDF]

Guest, P. and Young, T. 2006: ‘Mapping Isca: geophysical investigation of Priory Field, Caerleon’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 155, 117–33

Hawkes, C. 1930: ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon in Monmouthshire: Report on the excavations carried out in the eastern corner in 1929’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 85, 144–96

Knight, J.K. 1964: ‘Excavations in Cold Bath Road, Caerleon’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 113, 41–7

Knight, J.K. 2003: Caerleon Roman Fortress, ed.3, Cardiff

Lee, J.E. 1862: Isca Silurum, Or, An Illustrated Catalogue of the Museum of Antiquities at Caerleon, London

Mason, H. and Macdonald, P. 1997: The Roman Legionary Fortress at Caerleon in Gwent: Report on the Excavations of the Southern Defences Carried out in 1982, Cardiff Studies in Archaeology Specialist Report 5, Cardiff

Moore, D. 1970: Caerleon: Fortress of the Legion, Cardiff

Murray Threipland, L. 1965: ‘Caerleon: Museum Street site 1965’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 114, 130–45

Murray Threipland, L. 1967: ‘Excavations at Caerleon 1966: Barracks in the north corner’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 116, 23–56

Murray Threipland, L. 1969 ‘The Hall, Caerleon 1964: Excavations on the site of the legionary hospital’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 118, 86–123

Murray Threipland, L. and Davies, W.J. 1959: ‘Excavations at Caerleon 1956’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 108, 126–43

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1929: ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon in Monmouthshire. Report on the excavations carried out in Jenkins’s Field 1926’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 84, 237–307

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1930: ‘Note on the bath-building outside the south-eastern defences’, in Hawkes 1930, 147–9

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1931 ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon in Monmouthshire: Report on the excavations carried out in the Prysg Field 1927–9. Part I’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 86, 99–157

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1932a: ‘Further excavations within the Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon, Monmouthshire’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 87, 394–5

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1933: ‘Further excavations within the Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon, Monmouthshire’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 88, 111–14

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1936: ‘Caerleon excavations, 1936’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 91, 107–8

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1939: ‘White Hart Lane, Caerleon, 1938’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 94, 107–8

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1953: ‘Caerleon: Prysg Field II site’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 15, 236–42

Wheeler, M. and Nash-Williams, V.E. 1970: Caerleon Roman Amphitheatre and Prysg Field Barrack Buildings, Monmouthshire. Caerllion Sir Fynwy, London

Wheeler, R.E.M. and Wheeler, T.V. 1928: ‘The Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon, Mon’, Archaeologia 18, 111–218

Young, T.P. 2006: Geophysical Investigation of the Priory Field, Caerleon, 2006 [PDF]

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1984a: ‘Caerleon’, Archaeology in Wales 24, 55–7

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1984b: ‘Great Bulmore’, Archaeology in Wales 24, 57–8

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1986a: The Legionary Fortress Baths at Caerleon vol I: The Buildings, Cardiff

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1987a: ‘Caerleon, Isca, British Telecom site, Museum Street’, Archaeology in Wales 27, 47–8

Zienkiewicz J.D. 1990: ‘The early development of the legionary fortress of Caerleon-Isca and consequences for Flavian policy in Britain’, in Burnham, B.C. and Davies, J.L. (eds.), Conquest, Coexistence and Change. Recent Work in Roman Wales, Trivium 25, Lampeter, 27–34

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1993: ‘Excavations in the Scamnum Tribunorum at Caerleon: the Legionary Museum Site 1983–5’, Britannia 24, 27–140


Boon, G.C. 1975: ‘Three Caerleon sculptures’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 26, 227–30

Boon, G.C. 1984a: ‘A trulleus from Caerleon with a stamp of the First Cavalry Regiment of Thracians’, Antiquaries Journal 64, 403–7

Boon, G.C. 1984b: Laterarium Iscanum: the Antefixes, Brick & Tile-stamps of the Second Augustan Legion, Cardiff

Chapman, E.M. 2005: A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in the National Museum of Wales, BAR 388, Oxford

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Driel-Murray, C. van 1988: ‘A fragmentary shield cover from Caerleon’, with contributions by Evans, E.M. and Pickett-Baker, J., in Coulston, J.C. (ed.), Military Equipment and the Identity of Roman Soldiers. Proceedings of the Fourth Roman Military Equipment Conference, BAR International Series 394, Oxford, 51–66

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Morgan, O. 1866: Notice of a Tessellated Pavement Discovered in the Churchyard, Caerleon; Together with an Essay on Mazes and Labyrinths by Edward Trollope, Monmouthshire & Caerleon Antiquarian Assoc., Newport

Morgan, O. 1877: ‘discovery of a tessellated pavement in the town of Caerleon, Monmouthshire’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 2nd ser., 7, 219–23

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1932b: ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon. Report on the excavations carried out in the Prysg Field, 1927–9. Part II. The Finds (pottery excepted)’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 87, 48–104

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1932c: ‘The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon in Monmouthshire. Report on the excavations in the Prysg Field 1927–9. Part III. The pottery’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 87, 265–349

Nash-Williams, V.E. 1932d: ‘A new centurial stone from Caerleon’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 6, 291 Nash-Williams, V.E. 1951: ‘Bronze bracelet from Caerleon (Mon.)’, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 14, 252

Rice, W. 1719: ‘An account of an ancient Roman inscription found at Caerleon upon Usk. With some conjectures thereon by John Harris’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 30, 945–6

Webster, J. 1990: ‘An Unusual Brooch from Caerleon’, Britannia 21, 297–99

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1986b: The Legionary Fortress Baths at Caerleon vol II: The Finds, Cardiff

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1987b: Roman Gems from Caerleon, Cardiff

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1992a: ‘Pottery from excavations on the site of the Roman Legionary Museum, Caerleon, 1983–5’, Journal of Roman Pottery Studies 5, 81–109

Zienkiewicz, J.D. 1992b: ‘Roman glass vessels from Caerleon: Excavations at the Legionary Museum Site 1983–5’, The Monmouthshire Antiquary 8, 1–9

Visiting and browsing

The west wall at Caerleon

Caerleon is one of the best-presented of all of the legionary fortresses – both on the ground and in cyberspace – and there is much to see, despite the presence of a modern village on top of it. There are five key components to see on a visit, starting with the excellent Roman Legionary Museum (a branch of the National Museum of Wales and now – slightly incongruously – renamed as the National Roman Legion Museum). This contains many finds from the site. Next is the north-west corner of the fortress, known as the Prysg Field, where the ramparts, ovens, latrine and one barrack can be inspected in situ, whilst the location of three more barracks are marked out on the ground. South of this is the legionary amphitheatre (excavated by Mortimer Wheeler and his wife), whilst immediately east of it is a walk along the south-western defences of the fortresses. Returning to the village high street, a visit can be satisfyingly rounded off by going to the Roman Baths Museum, which gives a truly awe-inspiring impression of the majesty of these original internal legionary baths (there was an additional extramural baths near the site of the old castle, not accessible).

Prysg Field barracks

The village of Caerleon has a comprehensive and informative website with a useful summary of what can be seen whilst Cardiff University’s recent campaign of work on the fortress has an accompanying website with much to explore and download. The NRLM has its own website and Cadw has pages for the amphitheatre and baths but not, mysteriously, for the Prysg Field barracks.

Additional information for inclusion may be sent to
(please put fortress site name in the subject line; all other emails may be treated as spam and deleted).

Page last updated 8th December 2013