View Larger Map



Crow, J. 1986: ‘A review of the physical remains of the frontier in Cappodocia’, in P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (eds), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East: Proceedings of a Colloquium held at the University of Sheffield in April 1986, British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara Monograph 8, BAR S297, Oxford, 77–91

Drahor, M.G., Berge, M.A., and Kurtulmuş, T.Ö. 2004: The Final Report on Large-Scale Geophysical Studies in the Satala (Legio XV Apollinaris) in 2004, Dokuz Eylül University Center for Near Surface Geophysics and Archaeological Prospection (CNSGAP), Report 04–03, İzmir [PDF]

Drahor, M.G., Kurtulmuş, T.Ö., Berge, M.A., Hartmann, M., and Speidel, M.A. 2008: ‘Magnetic imaging and electrical resistivity tomography studies in a Roman military installation found in Satala archaeological site, northeastern Anatolia, Turkey’, Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 259–71

Gregory, S. 1995–97: Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier, Amsterdam, vol. 2, 39–42

Lightfoot, C.S. 1990a: ‘Roman legions at Satala, a frontier fortress in north-east Turkey’, Image 29, 26–7

Lightfoot, C.S. 1990b: ‘Satala survey, 1989’, Anatolian Studies 40, 13–16

Lightfoot, C.S. 1998: ‘Survey work at Satala, A Roman legionary fortress in north-east Turkey’, in Matthews, R. (ed.), Ancient Anatolia. Fifty Years’ Work by the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London, 273–84

Mitford, T.B. 1974a: ‘Bilotti’s excavations at Satala’, Anatolian Studies 24, 221–44

Mitford, T.H. 1980: ‘Cappadocia and Armenia Minor’, in Temporini, H. (ed.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.7.2, 169–228


Mitford, T.B. 1974b: ‘Some inscriptions from the Cappadocian limes’, Journal of Roman Studies 64, 160–75

Mitford, T.B. 1997: ‘The Inscriptions of Satala (Armenia Minor)’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 115, 137–67

Visiting and browsing

Although there are visible remains at the site, much of what can be seen now is in fact Byzantine.

There is a web page (with links to PDF reports) relating to the work undertaken by the MAVORS institute whilst Jona Lendering has produced an extremely useful account of the site.

Additional information for inclusion may be sent to
(please put fortress site name in the subject line; all other emails may be treated as spam and deleted).

Page last updated 25th November 2013