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Brünnow, R.E. and Domaszewski, A. von 1904: Die Provincia Arabia, Strassburg, vol. I, 431–63

Gregory, S. 1995–97: Roman Military Architecture on the Eastern Frontier, Amsterdam, vol. 2, 383–9

Kennedy, D.L. 2000: The Roman Army in Jordan, London, 168–70

Kennedy, D.L. and Riley, D.N. 1990: Rome’s Desert Frontier from the Air, London, 131–4

Killick, A.C. 1982: ‘Udruh, 1980 and 1981 seasons’, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 26, 415–16

Killick, A.C. 1983a: ‘Udruh, 1980, 1981, 1982 seasons, a preliminary report’, Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 27, 231–44

Killick, A.C. 1983b: ‘Udruh. The frontier of an empire: 1980 and 1981 seasons, a preliminary report’, Levant 15, 110–31

Killick, A.C. 1986a: ‘Udruh and the southern frontier’, in Freeman, P.W.M. and Kennedy, D.L. (eds), The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East, BAR S297, Oxford, 431–46

Killick, A.C. 1986b: ‘Udruh – eine antike Statte vor den Toren Petras’, in Lindner, M. (ed.), Petra: neue Ausgrabungen und Entdeckungen, Bad Windsheim, 44–57

Killick, A.C. 1989: ‘Udhruh’, in Homes-Fredericq, D. and Hennessy, J.B. (eds), Archaeology of Jordan II.2, Leuven, 576–80

Parker, S.T. 1986: Romans and Saracens. A History of the Arabian Frontier, Winona Lake, 94–8


Kennedy, D. and Falahat, R. 2008: ‘Castra Legionis VI Ferratae: a building inscription for the legionary fortress at Udruh near Petra’, Journal of Roman Archaeology 21, 150–69

Visiting and browsing

The site can be visited and parts of the defences are exposed, although much of the fortress can be made out as a ruin field.

After a hiatus of two decades, a team from the Netherlands has now returned to Udruh and is resuming archaeological work there, concentrating on survey work in the fortress hinterland. There is a website accompanying the project which provides further details. Meanwhile the APAAME team have produced a superb sequence of aerial photographs of Udruh, one of which graces the plates section of the Fortresses book.

Additional information for inclusion may be sent to info@legionaryfortresses.info
(please put fortress site name in the subject line; all other emails may be treated as spam and deleted).

Page last updated 8th December 2013