View Larger Map



Brinklow, D. 1987: ‘Fortress wall in bus lay-by’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 12, 16–18

Dyer, J. and Wenham, L.P. 1967: ‘Excavations and discoveries in a cellar in Messrs. Chas. Hart’s premises, Feasgate, York, 1956’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 39, 419–25

Evans, D.T. 1998: ‘Excavations at the former Daveygate Centre’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 22(4), 5–9

Evans, D.T. 2000: ‘The former Primitive Methodist chapel, 3 Little Stonegate’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 23(2), 24–8

Hall, R.A. 1997: Excavations in the Praetentura: 9 Blake Street, Archaeology of York AY3/4, York

Macnab, N. 2000: ‘More on the Roman fortress: a lift-pit excavation behind 3 Little Stonegate’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 23(3), 31–46

Miller, S. 1925: ‘Roman York: excavations of 1925’, JRS 15, 176–94

Miller, S. 1928: ‘Roman York: excavations of 1926–1927’, JRS 18, 61–99

Ottaway, P. 1985: ‘7–9 Aldwark’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 10, 13–15

Ottaway, P. 1991: ‘The Roman fortress: planning for the future’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 16(3), 3–13

Ottaway, P. 1992: The English Heritage Book of Roman York, London

Ottaway, P. 1996: Excavations and Observations on the Defences and Adjacent Sites: 1971–90, Archaeology of York 3/3, York

Ottaway, P. 1997: ‘The sewer trenches in Low Lane, Petergate’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 22(3), 15–23

Ottaway, P. 2004: Roman York, ed. 2, Stroud

Pearson, N. 1986: ‘The Purey Cust Nuffield Hospital’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 11, 15–18

Pearson, N.F. 1990: ‘Swinegate excavation’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 15(1), 2–10

Phillips, A.D. and Heywood, B. 1995: Excavations at York Minster, vol. I: Roman to Norman, The Headquarters of the Roman Legionary Fortress at York and Its Exploitation in the Early Middle Ages (71–1070 A.D.), (Carver, M.O.H., ed.), London

Radley, J. 1966: ‘A section of the Roman fortress wall at Barclay’s Bank, St Helen’s Square, York’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 41, 581–4

Radley, J. 1970: ‘Two interval towers and new sections of the fortress wall, York’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 42, 399–402

Radley, J. 1972: ‘Excavations on the defences of the city of York in an early medieval stone tower and the successive earth ramparts’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 44, 38–64

Ramm, H.G. 1956: ‘Roman York: excavations of 1955’, JRS 46, 76–90

Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments (England) 1962: Eburacum, vol. 1, London

Stead, I.M. 1958: ‘Excavations at the south corner of the Roman fortress at York, 1956’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 39, 515–38

Stead, I.M. 1968: ‘An excavation at King’s Square, York, 1957’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 42, 151–64

Stockwell, M. 1990: ‘Sorry about the smell but …’, Interim: the Archaeology of York 15(1), 20–5

Sumpter, A.B. and Coll, S. 1977: Interval Tower SW5 and the South-West Defences: Excavations 1972–75, Archaeology of York 3/2, York

Wenham, L.P. 1961: ‘Excavations and discoveries adjoining the south-west wall of the Roman legionary fortress in Feasgate, York, 1955–57’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 40, 329–50

Wenham, L.P. 1962: ‘Excavations and discoveries within the legionary fortress in Davygate, York, 1955–58’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 40, 507–87

Wenham, L.P. 1968: ‘Discoveries in King’s Square, York, 1963’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 42, 165–8

Wenham, L.P. 1972: ‘Excavations in Low Petergate, York, 1957–8’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 44, 65–113

Whitwell, J.B. 1976: The Church Street Sewer and an Adjacent Building, Archaeology of York 3/1, York

Wood, I. 1995: ‘Turning a fortress into a cathedral’, British Archaeology 7, 7


Buckland, P.C. 1976: The Environmental Evidence from the Church Street Roman Sewer System, Archaeology of York 14/1, York

Cool, H.E.M., Lloyd-Morgan, G. and Hooley, A.D. 1995: Finds from the Fortress, Archaeology of York 17/10, York

Kenward, H.K., Hall, A.R., and Jones, A.K.G. 1986: Environmental Evidence from a Roman Well and Anglian Pits in the Legionary Fortress, Archaeology of York 14/5, York

MacGregor, A. 1976: Finds from a Roman Sewer and an Adjacent Building in Church Street, Archaeology of York 17/1, York

Monaghan, J. 1993: Roman Pottery from the Fortress: 9 Blake Street, Archaeology of York 16/7, York

Monaghan, J. 1997: Roman Pottery From York, Archaeology of York 16/8, York

Wright, R.P. 1976: ‘Tile stamps of the sixth legion found in Britain’, Britannia 7, 224–35

Wright, R.P. 1978: ‘Tile stamps of the ninth legion found in Britain’, Britannia 9, 379–82

Visiting and browsing

Arguably the most famous visible part of the fortress is the Multangular Tower in the south-west corner of the defences, part of a series of ornamental towers along the waterfront of the camp. The foundations of a neighbouring interval tower can also be made out next to a park bench. Passing through the Multangular Tower, the curtain wall of the fortress can be found within the later city walls. This is characterised by brick bonding courses. Part of an interval tower can be made out to the north of the south-west corner. Near York Minster, a column from the principia has been re-erected next to the road and opposite a modern statue of Constantine. In the undercroft of the minster, parts of the centurions' quarters of the First Cohort are displayed, along with one of the sewers of the fortress. On the north side of the fortress, a walk along the walls to the east of Monk Bar. Looking down to the south, the line of the fortress wall, complete with the foundations of an interval tower, can be seen. Continuing eastwards, the north-east corner of the fortress wall has fortuitously been preserved right up to the string course that marks the level of the rampart walk. The foundations of the attached angle tower can be seen. Although it is no longer publicly accessible, this corner has a building inscription of the Tenth Cohort in situ in its outer face. Finds from the fortress can be seen in the Yorkshire Museum, close to the Multangular Tower.

When it comes to material on the web, the Roman Britain website has its usual gaudy page on Eboracum. The York Archaeological Trust has a page on the Roman remains and there is also an adequate Wikipedia page on the site. A series of photographs of the fortress can be seen online.

Additional information for inclusion may be sent to info@legionaryfortresses.info
(please put fortress site name in the subject line; all other emails may be treated as spam and deleted).

Page last updated 11th December 2013